There is at least one somewhat popular Russian-only programming language. It’s the programming language of 1C: Enterprise (1C: Предприятие) - a Russian development platform used for the fast creation of customizable business automation software. It is the most popular platform of its kind in Russia and some other Russian-speaking countries. Consequently, knowing the 1C language is a required skill for certain types of Russian programmers and IT specialists.
The 1C language allows using both Russian and English keywords, but the Russian ones are the default ones, making a program in the 1C language instantly recognizable. Conceptually, it is similar to languages like С and Java.
Otherwise, Russian programmers use the same internationally popular programming languages and frameworks as everybody else.
Picture - A part of a program written in the 1C programming language.